Puppet Hiera Hash Example

To teach Hiera how to talk to other data sources, write a custom backend. This post explores the Puppet topics of Classes, Roles and Profiles as well as how to utilise Puppet Template files. Hiera, the tool Puppet uses to read YAML files, has multiple ways to look up data. However, if you are in a sizable team it helps to encrypt and decrypt data with multiple keys. Data is no longer just global — it can be defined in an environment and inside. Hiera-eyaml is a backend for Hiera that provides per-value encryption of sensitive data within yaml files to be used by Puppet. Not quite sure based on the example below. Hit enter to search. Hiera Custom Backend Annotated Example. > > > John > John, Here's a simplified example of one of my issues. To get data from hiera to puppet manifests, we have to use 'hiera' function call. As seen in the example below, I've stivesso. You can use a qualified key to lookup a value that is contained inside a hash or array: $ hiera user {"name"=>"kim", "home"=>"/home/kim"} $ hiera user. A real environment data layer means changes to your hierarchy are now routine and testable, using multiple backends in your hierarchy is easier and you can make a custom backend. If we were to write a puppet_server module, for example, we could establish a notify relationship between the puppet. Then you can instruct puppet to perform a hiera lookup using a number of functions: hiera; hiera_array; hiera_hash. This integration and new version provided much improved debugging capabilities. remember about puppet? Puppet is a web service. Mike will have access to host "host2. Hiera is important because it allows to assign values to the parameters of Puppet classes: a parameter called server of a class called ntp, for example, can be evaluated via a lookup of the Hiera key ntp::server, this is useful to cleanly separate our Puppet code, where we define the resources we want to apply to our nodes, from the data which. hiera lookup. deployment-prep. Within hiera one can put different types of variables: - text - arrays - hashes Working with text and arrays is easy for most Puppet users. system_uptime. I need some help please to get hiera configuration data derived from YAML, thru puppet. Examples: Hash Matches a hash of any length; all keys must match Scalar and any values must match Data. You can store usernames, passwrod, DNS server details, ldap server details etc. For each key, if the value is: …only present in one source hash, it goes into the final hash. If I had to guess the origin of the distaste, it would be because create_resources and inlined defined resource types was the only way to iterate prior to 3. Kyle talks about a bug with the Interaction Hub and My Favorites and some odd finds in PeopleBooks. Hiera uses a customizable hierarchy to lookup the data. (i could be > wrong) > In later versions of puppet/hiera, it is possible to use dot (. x series, brings new capabilities for data management. Use use just the keys of the hash as your resource titles. Single or Multiple Repositories? Managing Multiple Masters. Enabling and Configuring Hiera f. Chapter 3 - Using Hiera. The example i gave is for a small set of servers. The old hiera() function is not aware of this - it's a lookup() feature but with this in place we'll hopefully never see hiera*() functions being used in Puppet 4 modules. In this post it described a way to configure hiera files on puppet master. So if you have hiera. However, if you are in a sizable team it helps to encrypt and decrypt data with multiple keys. In this case, you also structure your data in a form that is not particularly conducive to the lookups you want to perform, but that, too can be worked around. You can use Bolt or Puppet Enterprise to automate tasks that you perform on your infrastructure on an as-needed basis, for example, when you troubleshoot a system, deploy an application, or stop and restart services. html#each in the second example. The selinux::module defined type will handle copying that file out to the target server, compiling the (human-readable). Use a similar pattern to the example above, but this time we'll pass an entire hash in:. Within hiera one can put different types of variables: - text - arrays - hashes Working with text and arrays is easy for most Puppet users. We can install an application and start its eventual services with:. Tutorials: Check the docs directory for tutorials. However, if you are in a sizable team it helps to encrypt and decrypt data with multiple keys. Red Hat Ambassador Infrastructure & Cloud. Create the following YAML file:. Puppet Ochestration: get results of puppet run Hiera hash or array. Modules now contain Bolt Tasks that take action outside of a desired state managed by Puppet. For example, since the value of facts. It provides a command line tool hiera that we can use to interrogate direclty the Hiera data and functions to be used inside Puppet manifests: hiera (), hiera_array (), hiera_hash (), hiera_include Hiera is installed by default with Puppet version 3 and is available as separated download on earlier version (Installation instructions). (5 replies) Howdy: I need some help please to get hiera configuration data derived from YAML, thru puppet. In fact, create_resources is a function which converts a hash into a set of resources and adds them to the catalog. Furthermore, Puppet 4. Re: [Puppet Users] look up hiera hash's subkey within yaml Carthik Sharma. Right now the default hash gets returned only if the key I search for is not found in the hierarchy, I want all keys defined in the default hash to be present in the returned hash. Hiera can return any kind of data structure you can represent in YAML. If we were to write a puppet_server module, for example, we could establish a notify relationship between the puppet. Configure GCE instances after GCE-tags with hiera. Using Puppet Without a Master. A hash merge lookup assembles a value from every matching level of the hierarchy. The hiera_hash() function performs a hash-merge lookups, the nature of which you seem to understand. Open source projects. Chapter 3 - Using Hiera. Company-wide defaults 2. Red Hat Ambassador Infrastructure & Cloud. Real-life examples of Puppet in action. Operating system specific changes 3. The hiera function lets you look up configuration data from within your manifest, and Hiera takes care of returning the correct value for the current environment. Use a similar pattern to the example above, but this time we'll pass an entire hash in:. 9 and later use Hiera 5, and its documentation is in the Puppet reference manual. Masterless Puppet - in short. pp file from the sites. We use the Puppet DSL to grab a list of the "roles", then check each one to see if the requesting node is a member of it and include it if it is. 7: Release: 1. using an array of hashes from hiera in a template with puppet - common. (i could be > wrong) > In later versions of puppet/hiera, it is possible to use dot (. Scott Lackey presents how to get started with hiera and puppet using many of the popular hiera backends. Hiera calls a data_hash function with two arguments: A hash of options. 0 - a Ruby package on Puppet - Libraries. ) A Puppet::LookupContext object. Hash keys can be any data type, but generally, you should use only strings. See Puppet coding for more general information about how, when, and where to use Puppet and Hiera on the Wikimedia cluster, and the upstream Hiera documentation for more general information about Hiera. Puppet Cheat Sheet; NGINX - sample module structure; Puppet Enterprise upgrade 2015. The class keyword is a key Puppet building block. Here's one way to go about it (note that I don't know or use the puppetlabs-lvm module myself, and the following is. On Fri, Oct 24, 2014 at 7:49 AM, Anthony Clark wrote: Hi All, Does anyone use example42-network with Hiera? I'm trying to find an example in Hiera that configures that module. Qualified Key Lookup. pp typically in huge case statements and then reference this data as default. It retrieves all of the (hash) values for a given key, then merges the hashes into a single hash. Loading… Dashboards. hierarchy - An. el7: Epoch: Arch: noarch: Summary: A network tool for managing many disparate systems: Description: Puppet lets you centrally manage every important aspect of your system using a cross-platform specification language that manages all the separate elements normally aggregated in different files, like users, cron jobs, and hosts, along with. There are various different ways to utilise the class keyword and these are explored below. Upgrading to Hiera 5 offers some major advantages. If you wanted to make the ps_home: key support hash merging, you could replace hiera('ps_home with hiera_hash('ps_home. See the following pages for more info: Complete example - Hiera 3. Anyway, moving forward in this process, I stumbled upon the re-configuration of some Apache VirtualHosts with Hiera (using the puppetlabs-apache module). yaml will automatically be referenced instead. In our first example, we'll create some user. With Hiera, we can provide node-specific information to a Puppet module. Check out dozens of projects in the Puppet ecosystem. NOTE: This page was generated from the Puppet source code on 2017-06-27 17:23:02 -0500 notify Attributes Description Sends an arbitrary message to the agent run-time log. load_file() will deserialize say an Integer to a ruby Fixnum, but the function symkeys_to_string converts every key to a string, regardless of whether it is a symbol. Loading… Dashboards. A hash merge lookup assembles a value from every matching level of the hierarchy. I am confused, however. More: variables, functions, require, subscribe, templates. 3 was giving us a lot of issues. Job Abstracts uses proprietary technology to keep the availability and accuracy of its jobs and their details. Subject: [Puppet Users] Re: Hiera hashes and arrays in ERB templates Thanks for your suggestions guys. So, I created a basic Vagrant repo to configure an example proof of concept. Hiera calls a data_hash function with two arguments: A hash of options. Philipp Gassmann. I can now access these variables directly from my Puppet modules using the hiera() function provided by hiera-puppet. – Puppet has a list of commons functions, such as md5, which returns a MD5 hash value from a provided string. Hashes still seem to have some kind of magic. NOTE: This page was generated from the Puppet source code on 2017-06-27 17:23:02 -0500 notify Attributes Description Sends an arbitrary message to the agent run-time log. You must model your data in a way that Puppet can access. yaml in the os folder, while on a distribution such as CentOS, the file RedHat. That’s why we offer fast, reliable and secure service that’s backed by our friendly, knowledgeable support team, 24/7. However if there is certain data that you want to use in your manifests, but are stored in yaml files. 0) I ran into a problem while defining user in hiera. Use this lookup type only if the hash key has nested hashes. Loading… Dashboards. To get started using Hiera with your existing Puppet 3 implementation, you won't have to make any significant changes or code migrations. In this course, Puppet 4: Hiera, the Single Source of Truth, you'll be refactoring the NTP module to make use of Hiera in replacement of some of the Puppet logic. For each key, if the value is: …only present in one source hash, it goes into the final hash. In Puppet, Hiera is a key-value lookup tool for configuration data. x but I think it will work in 3. Important aspects of using Hiera are merge behavior and interpolation. Get more information in the following link. Assumption: we want ssh host keys in hiera to get added to a system. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover. What I had to do: convert the data from hiera to data useful as parameters for create_resources e. Interpolation in Hiera data Hiera data is not restricted to literal values; it can also include the value of Facter facts or Puppet variables, as in the following example: backup_path: … - Selection from Puppet 5 Beginner's Guide - Third Edition [Book]. The class keyword is a key Puppet building block. TDD a Hiera hash in Rspec-puppet fails. With Hiera, we can provide node-specific information to a Puppet module. Open source projects. To get data from hiera to puppet manifests, we have to use 'hiera' function call. Hiera-Eyaml-GPG. Furthermore, Puppet 4. Introduction to Hiera - Puppet Camp Portland 2015 Learning Puppet Manifests files with Examples | Puppet Tutorials for LearnITGuide Tutorials 27,776 views. If you choose not to, you can force the examples into the required groups as follows. Set it up so that if bad data is passed in, Puppet’s compiler aborts with a helpful message. x) and in the Hiera Complete Example at docs. Puppet Master Puppetmaster This book list for those who looking for to read and enjoy the Puppet Master Puppetmaster, you can read or download Pdf/ePub books and don't forget to give credit to the trailblazing authors. However, with the release of 4. In this tutorial we'll carry on looking at hiera as a standalone tool, and still ignore Puppet. Hash merge behavior is obtained only by explicitly calling hiera_hash(). remember about puppet? Puppet is a web service. This does not sound like a big change but with Hiera and the new Puppet Language features, I can define big WebLogic Domains without losing maintainability ( Got one customer with 5 Clusters, 25 Managed + JMS servers, more than 100 queues & topics). An example using hiera_hash might be that that I want to manage a set of production and stage web servers. How to use Vault with Hiera 5 for secret management with Puppet. Job Abstracts uses proprietary technology to keep the availability and accuracy of its jobs and their details. Query all users $ sudo puppet resource user Query state of the file "/etc/passwd" $ sudo puppet resource file /etc/passwd Ensure package "vim-enhanced" is installed. the TLS certificate of M (like Puppet itself, or #6 Bacula). yaml production. There is another pattern that is documented indirectly by Gary (under Hiera data bindings in Puppet 3. Any way around, you certainly can build hashes in Puppet DSL, including with use of data obtained via hiera. yaml; Provided everything works and you get back that array of ntp servers, you’re ready to configure another node. It works exactly as above by adding a data directory with a hiera. hiera yaml: hash with long strings values (ssl cert / key) How can I avoid "write everything twice" in my hiera data? How do I express an empty array in Hiera? Hiera Couchdb Http Paths Order. The hiera_hash() function performs a hash-merge lookups, the nature of which you seem to understand. In YAML files: Any string containing an interpolation token must be quoted in order. You cannot, however, express resource references in hiera data, and you need resource references to express your resource relationships. Setup a private space for you and your coworkers to ask questions and share information. View Thomas Howard Uphill’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. I have studied Internet search results and puppet documentation on create_resources and custom defines but need a little help along. defaults - A hash, which can set a default datadir, backend, and options for hierarchy levels. See Puppet coding for more general information about how, when, and where to use Puppet and Hiera on the Wikimedia cluster, and the upstream Hiera documentation for more general information about Hiera. 0) I ran into a problem while defining user in hiera. Install and Manage MySQL Databases with Puppet Hiera on Ubuntu 16. yaml puppet. The first post covers the new Data Type system. te file into a loadable SELinux module. We are in tihe process of moving to puppet 4. It extends the old extlookup model in a few key ways. Introduction to Hiera and Hiera Data Structures. 85ecb025--- /dev/null +++ b/hieradata/common. Both of them always try to ensure a specified state on the system. Hiera-eyaml is a Hiera backend which can be used to encrypt single keys in Hiera yaml files. xz for Arch Linux from Arch Linux Community repository. In this Puppet environment, users are listed in hiera in a hash. This module is new and does some horrible things to get itself activated automatically without any configuration, I’ve only tested it on Puppet 3. It creates new resources based on the data passed to the factory’s interface. In fact, you can convert an existing params class to a hash-based Hiera backend in a matter of minutes. This is a huge win and really shows what can be done with the Data in Modules features and something that's been impossible before. Tiny Puppet is a Puppet module we can use to manage virtually any application on any Operating System (here’s the current Compatibility Matrix). First, let’s cover what a YAML hash is. Puppet's powerful create_resources() function makes it easy to define resources based purely on your Hiera data. The following keys are in a hiera. The default behaviour of hiera when it performs a lookup is to stop searching as soon as at is finds a match and returns that given match. With this book, you'll be up and running with using Puppet to manage your IT systems. In this Quick Start, we'll be creating an nginx module. Puppet 4 has some new functionality. Ask Question Asked 3 years, 10 months ago. Large applications probably have hundreds of configurable params and handle all of them can be tedious, horrifying or with some hints, simply awesome. Another major advantage is the separation of configuration data from the code, which makes everything generally easier. You now get way more output from the puppet lookup command. Ok, so hiera_include will look in the backend for a variable named in the call, in your case 'classesA'. Must be the number 5, with no quotes. By default, Hiera will look at the top-level keys of a hash and not merge the underlying settings. All objects support the equality operators == and != as well as supporting being used as hash keys without any extra burden on the implementor (i. Extlookup had just one backend, Hiera can be extended with your own backends and represent a few enhancements over the base Extlookup approach thanks to this. Bug #14509 hiera returns nil instead of empty hash if no parameters are set. Assuming the file is file. yaml: new file mode 100644 index 00000000. See The official Puppet documentation for more details on configuring Hiera 5. You can configure Hiera using a YAML file or by providing it Hash data in your code. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Large applications probably have hundreds of configurable params and handle all of them can be tedious, horrifying or with some hints, simply awesome. It has configuration files of it’s own rather than rely on Puppet. Qualified Key Lookup. Loop through hash in puppet define. Written by Tim Sharpe, rspec-puppet allows you to build catalogs in rspec and then verify that various resources appear, along with what their properties may be. You say that you want all the data in a single file, yet you declare two levels in your Hiera hierarchy, one of them defined per-hostname. Hi, we'd like to specify the user accounts and authorized_keys via hiera. Hiera 5 and Puppet 4. Not quite sure based on the example below. Bob will also have access to host "host1. Mike will have access to host "host2. yaml Config File 4/44. This is often useful for an advanced create_resources variable import as well as many other uses in an advanced Puppet environment. Anyway, moving forward in this process, I stumbled upon the re-configuration of some Apache VirtualHosts with Hiera (using the puppetlabs-apache module). Real-life examples of Puppet in action. One of the biggest limitations with masterless Puppet is keeping Hiera data secure. In our first example, we'll create some user. If you followed the previous tutorial, then hiera should now be installed. Hiera calls a data_hash function with two arguments: A hash of options. yaml file matches the example we provided; You’ve put a symlink to hiera. To get started using Hiera with your existing Puppet 3 implementation, you won't have to make any significant changes or code migrations. Linked Applications. Below is an example of using rspec-puppet with hiera. SYNOPSIS puppet report action [--terminus _TERMINUS] [--extra HASH] Man Page: puppet report - Open Source Puppet latest | Puppet. 85ecb025--- /dev/null +++ b/hieradata/common. Enabling and Configuring Hiera f. NAME puppet-facts - Retrieve and store facts. Real-life examples of Puppet in action. Upgrading to Hiera 5 offers some major advantages. Although a general-purpose backend still takes a certain amount of thought, it’s really easy to write a backend that only needs to work for one module. Puppet, Hiera and hashes Puppet is a rapidly evolving tool, since we started using it a couple of years ago the language and tools have improved hugely and so has the community around it. As for your manifests, you will mainly be using data available from facter and puppet built-in variables. In the demo from the webinar, we showed a basic example of using Vault as a backend for secret storage via Puppet's Hiera lookup tool. Puppet is run in masterless mode, meaning it never communicates to a Puppet master. How do I access merged hiera data directly from a template? Retrive list from hiera. The only configuration being considered in this hiera. Benefits of going 'Masterless' What would you have to do? Problems with going 'Masterless' Deploying Your Code to the Puppet Master. defaults - A hash, which can set a default datadir, backend, and options for hierarchy levels. SYNOPSIS puppet catalog action [--terminus _TERMINUS] [--extra HASH] Man Page: puppet catalog - Open Source Puppet latest | Puppet. Therefore you should now find a new config file present on your system, which is called hiera. Hiera is a key value lookup tool which holds all the data that has to be dynamically placed in a module. In this case, the returned array will contain one element -- the same hash that would be returned by the ordinary hiera() function. In an attempt to clean up my client's Hiera data for Puppet, and drastically reduce the number of Hiera calls in the Puppet manifests, I'm changing constructs like some_name::key1: a_value_1 some_. using an array of hashes from hiera in a template with puppet - common. The path to hiera. It is now possible to navigate/dig into hashes with integer keys when using dot notation - for example looking up "port. pp pattern and general problems with it. Understanding Advanced Puppet: Hiera, Iterations, Profiles & Resources If you've used Puppet, you probably know difficult is develop the modules needed for your requirements. Tip of the Week 34 - Encrypt your secrets with Hiera eyaml. hiera_include() calls hiera_array() and then includes each classname returned. If you wish to use the puppet. load parses a YAML string. In this Ubuntu-based example, Hiera will look for Debian. yaml config and the two yaml files in play: # cat /etc/hiera. This course provides the necessary skills and techniques to install Puppet Master and Agent in order to carry out configuration management effectively. deployment-prep. For a very simple example of this we can look at the ntp module. This data is useful for Puppet during a run, but you can’t inspect a file on disk and know definitively whether Puppet is going to back it up or not (and it goes without saying that if you can’t determine this aspect about a file on disk just by inspecting it, than you also can’t CHANGE this aspect about a file on disk either). SYNOPSIS puppet certificate action [--terminus _TERMINUS] [--extra HASH] --ca-location LOCATION Man Page: puppet certificate - Open Source Puppet 5. It has become the standard the facto to manage passwords, secrets and confidential data in Puppet. Configure GCE instances after GCE-tags with hiera. Join Private Q&A. 0 - a Ruby package on Puppet - Libraries. where a gem in puppet CLI hiera puppet lookup hiera. The nodes that "belong" to that role are listed as array items. yaml version 3 5 ( supports 3 and 4) explicit lookup hiera() hiera_array() hiera_hash() lookup() backend API complicated simple using function API APL options no lookup_options in data, explicit and APL the same! explain support no --explain advanced paths no globs, mapped paths deprecated 12. That’s why it’s sometimes difficult to get these two tools to work together. Puppet’s create_resources() function is a great way to cut down on unnecessary code in your manifests. To recap, the basic idea is to embed all your default data into a file params. For example: user: alice: uid: 500 password:. There is another pattern that is documented indirectly by Gary (under Hiera data bindings in Puppet 3. More: variables, functions, require, subscribe, templates. yaml extension; Your data source file’s YAML is well formed; You restarted your puppet master if you modified hiera. Since Capistrano is already configured to use Hiera, it makes sense to continue using that module. A hash merge lookup assembles a value from every matching level of the hierarchy. Any way around, you certainly can build hashes in Puppet DSL, including with use of data obtained via hiera. yaml file to make it more dynamic. If you wish to use the puppet. This is used in the hiera-puppet project to replace External Node Classifiers by creating a Hiera compatible include function. Given a Hiera hash like: Puppet: create_resources(hiera. conf and auth. Operating system specific changes 3. Use a similar pattern to the example above, but this time we'll pass an entire hash in:. Hit enter to search. 1; Puppet Tuning & Scaling; Puppet Validation Tools; managing SSH keys for Git; Install Puppet Enterprise; Backup and Restore PE; Installing PE agent in multiple hosts; Adding a Compile master; Provisioning with Razor; install Vagrant Plugins with Puppet. ruby,hash,yaml,webhooks,hiera. You can extend Hiera to look up values in data sources, for example, a PostgreSQL database table, a custom web app, or a new kind of structured data file. See Puppet coding for more general information about how, when, and where to use Puppet and Hiera on the Wikimedia cluster, and the upstream Hiera documentation for more general information about Hiera. x) and in the Hiera Complete Example at docs. But for interpolation, like "this has a %{variable} in it", you'll only ever get a string. pp module file. Cannot interpolate an individual element of any array or hash, even if that element’s value is a string. Each entry in the hiera hash contains a source value which is the path to the. The selinux::module defined type will handle copying that file out to the target server, compiling the (human-readable). I am happy to announce the first public release of Wirbelsturm, a Vagrant and Puppet based tool to perform 1-click local and remote deployments, with a focus on big data related infrastructure. This is a huge win and really shows what can be done with the Data in Modules features and something that’s been impossible before. But for interpolation, like "this has a %{variable} in it", you'll only ever get a string. The following keys are in a hiera. As for your manifests, you will mainly be using data available from facter and puppet built-in variables. Hiera 1 Manual • Hiera 1: The hiera. It can read facts directly from the local system (with the default facter terminus). With this book, you'll be up and running with using Puppet to manage your IT systems. You can extract an array of the keys via the stdlib's keys () function, and that's exactly what you would want to use in your declaration:. > Priority lookup is Hiera's focus and default, and automated data binding > uses that mode exclusively. Capabilities. Must be the number 5, with no quotes. Where I am having an issue though is when creating an upstream in Hiera I am wanting to pass the 'ip_hash' parameter to it. Use lookup() function instead of hiera() (the hiera_xxx() family of functions are deprecated in hiera 5). Ask Question Asked 6 years, 6 months ago. yaml file that has incorporated Consul lookups:. An example using hiera_hash might be that that I want to manage a set of production and stage web servers. Having recently been tasked with setting up a new LDAP system and to take into account sub-domains, and to enable users from different domains to allow access to systems in specific domains I thought I'd write up how it was done, since most LDAP set ups on the web only deal with 1 domain, and those that state more than one only show 1 domain and then use organisation units to do the rest of. 6, Puppet introduced a feature called “Run Stages” that will allow you to better control the order that Puppet configures your system. But again, use account instead. At a previous client I used rspec-puppet and the hiera-puppet-helper to not only mock hiera but to also test real hiera data with my unit tests. For example:. It is now possible to navigate/dig into hashes with integer keys when using dot notation - for example looking up "port. yaml :datadir: :hierarchy: YAML for Puppet users? A Heira example with complicated data?. NAME puppet-certificate - Provide access to the CA for certificate management. 9 and higher, and includes features like per-environment hierarchies, module data, simplified custom backends, improved debugging with puppet lookup --explain, and more. Qualified Key Lookup. The same happens with hiera_hash() - it just gets ignored and hiera() is used to fetch value from hiera backend (YAML in my case). iteration and repetition through hiera hashes in puppet 2016. You can safely remove hiera-puppet in the process of upgrading to Puppet 3. Get more information in the following link.